Faced with increasing Russian aggression and American nationalism, the European Union needs to forge a strategy which fathoms in the parameters of hybrid warfare in the civil society landscape – not by engaging in a similarly subversive offensive which would only weaponise CSOs further, creating more chaos and sustaining the conflict – but by developing a distributed system of aid delivery which preserves the neutrality and independence of civil society. Integrating such a tool into the EEAS Global Strategy might help the European Union strike the right balance between guaranteeing the Syrian people ownership of the peace process, and flexing its own diplomatic strength.

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